According to the National Institute of Mental Health – Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. People with schizophrenia may seem like they have lost touch with reality. Although schizophrenia is not as common as other mental disorders, the symptoms can be very disabling.

According to available public records, the term Schizophrenia was first used to describe an illness in 1887, more than 100 years ago by a pioneer psychiatrist called Eugen Bleuler. And since then we have come to accept two things – that schizophrenia means a loss of touch with reality in a patient and secondly, that it is rare.

But newer studies conducted by scientists have begun to question both these points. They are trying to redefine schizophrenia, and are also coming to the conclusion that it is more common than once thought of among the general population.

Which means that now schizophrenia isn’t looked at as a specific and rare single illness, but more of an amalgamation of different type of symptoms and conditions which can also be seen in people not suffering from any mental illness.

The main problem with diagnosing someone as a schizophrenic is because of how limiting the diagnosis method is. Even a well-qualified practitioner of mental health usually looks for the following factors in a person to diagnose them as suffering from schizophrenia. Conditions like – hallucinations (hearing voices, seeing sounds that aren’t there), thought disorder (being unable to think straight), paranoia, grandiosity (delusional beliefs that one possesses special powers or is famous), and anhedonia (inability to experience pleasure).

The problem arises when the symptoms mentioned above doesn’t affect all the people and not with the same intensity also. And having one symptom doesn’t mean that you will develop any of the other either.

health professional

So what happens in the offices of a mental health professional? Most of the diagnosticians tend to look at the main problems faced by the person. And the patients too will choose to focus on problems that give them the most difficulty. And when the doctors see these problems in isolation, they quickly club the problems as the symptom of a single illness.  And when you start defining illness based on the symptoms of people in hospitals, then you end up with a definition that doesn’t take into account the problems and symptoms of majority of people who do not enter the hospital system.

at prison - prisoner

And it isn’t even that difficult to trigger the common symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Prisoners in our jails who spend vast amounts of time in solitary often ‘lose’ their mind and their thought processes. People who go without sleep for more than two nights consecutively see hallucinations and have delusions. Overdosing on alcohol and drugs can also bring about symptoms usually associated with schizophrenia.

What this suggests is that schizophrenia isn’t one specific, rare, and rigorously defined illness. Not at all, in fact, it consists of a wide range of unrelated conditions which are also seen in people not mentally ill. The severity of the conditions themselves can range from the minor to the severe. It is just that the people diagnosed as a schizophrenic often have conditions that fall on the extreme end of that spectrum.


What all could be the causes behind such conditions? What causes hallucinations and delusions and paranoia in people? According to research, the modern man living in big cities often face unprecedented stress that former generations of people before him have not faced. Lack of space, pollution, stressful jobs all contribute towards it. As does childhood experiences like poverty, early drug and alcohol abuse, migration, etc. People who have been victims of violent assaults also tend to be on top of the list of people likely to suffer from these conditions. Conditions like paranoia are also seen in people with anxiety and depressive episodes.

Family and genetic factors also play a part, but so far research hasn’t been able to single out a single specific gene responsible for causing schizophrenia. There’s likely to be different genes that are responsible for contributing to it. And like with all genetic factors, it is ultimately our environment that decides which way these genes end up shaping our lives.

At the end of the day, the idea isn’t to retell or redefine schizophrenia for the current generation. But it is simply an impetus for an idea or a thought that there’s more to mental health than what meets the eye. And that we must spend more time and resources to better understand our psychotic problems. Like with all illnesses, the diagnostic criterions change over time and I’m sure this will happen with schizophrenia as well.

If we start focussing on specific problems, then we will be able to get help to a person while targeting their specific problem. This is the only way forward, and not by planning treatment for a loosely defined illness that affects different people differently.




Morning or evening best time to share bad news? According to a new study, they say the morning is the best time to share bad news. because in the morning we know how to handle it but in the evening we will off plumping from this. So we suffer less a physiological stress response at this time

If someone hurt us physically or mentally the pain doesn’t disappear soon. The hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) is our central response system. HAP acts when we get stress.HAP it increases the level of the hormone cortisol, which helps to release the glucose for energy into the bloodstream. The stress response gives extra fuel to handle the situation.

When our body gets stress or threat our midbrain release stress hormones that are primarily cortisol and epinephrine.

There is a daily pattern in the baseline level of cortisol. There are many kinds of factors influence an individual’s cortisol level at any given time age, sex, wakeup and sleep time exercise pattern and general stress level. The level of cortisol raises the possibility of how we respond to stress in the day time.

Findings of Yujiro Yamanaka

group of people

Yujiro Yamanaka at HokkaidoUniversity and colleagues recruited 20 male and 7 female having same sleep duration and average wake/sleep time and they have no hormonal, psychiatric or sleeping problems. They collect the saliva samples of the participants every two hours for one day with saliva they can evaluate the typical daily cortisol level of the participants.

How they measure stress?

The researchers used the Trier social stress test, the test gives participants presentation and mental arithmetic performance of the participants videoed of studies. The researchers also collect the saliva sample before the test, immediately after the test and every ten minutes for half an hour.

Side view at female employee relaxing from computer work holding hands behind head, young woman stretching at workplace taking short break for rest in office to increase productivity

After the test the researchers found that the group was stressed in the morning showed a statistically significant increase in the cortisol level of participants after the test when we compared with before cortisol level. This shows a large stress response in the morning but in the evening the cortisol level is low so it does not reach statistical significance.


The researcher says that the HAP axis responds more powerful against psychological stress in the morning rather than in the evening. Animal researchers say it’s because of adrenal cortex become less sensitive to a hormone called ACTH produced by the pituitary gland that triggers the release of the cortisol for our daily process.

Addison Disease

The low cortisol level condition is known as primary adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease. The efficiency of cortisol affects the psychological stress response. if a person with Addison disease experiences psychological stress that can lead to an Addisonian crisis.


Smiling young relaxed man enjoying pleasant morning sitting on rattan chair on terrace outdoor, happy successful businessman rests outside luxury house in peaceful place, stress free weekend concept

The study was done by Yujiroshows the individual cortisol level and respond to the stress and how it responds in morning and evening. Our body is designed to be under constant stress our body naturally lowers the cortisol level during normal time. The researchers say that if stress in the evening doesn’t raise the cortisol level so it does not have to increase the glucose availability and we will become more vulnerable to any threat, it would be harder to respond in the evening. The respond in lower cortisol is always better higher cortisol level affect our health. We can say the morning is the best time to share bad words.


happy couples at psychologists

Life as you and I know it is rarely without its challenges. When we dig deeper, we find that mental health issues are the result/casualty of such challenges.

But speaking about mental health issues, the focus is mostly centered around known big name issues like – Bipolar disorder, Schizophrenia, Major Depressive Disorder, Post Traumatic Disorder, etc.

These are definitely serious mental health issues, but they can be mainly managed through pharmacological interventions (as prescribed by a licensed psychiatrist), and a psychologist can at best provide only an empathetic and supporting role in their lives.

But for the vast majority of people, these big-ticket diseases aren’t what breaks them down. From the death of a loved one to everyday stressors causing anxiety, it is important to note the role a psychotherapist can play in their lives to help them solve the many problems life throws their way.

Stress and Anxiety

Portrait of a frustrated student girl sitting at the desk biting her fist. Education concept photo, lifestyle

Jobs to relationships can cause a lot of stress in people’s lives. Stress left untreated can lead to anxiety problems, social isolation, depression, among other problems.

Tip: A psychotherapist can help them manage stress and anxiety by finding the source or cause of their problems, as well as appropriate ways to overcome them.


Young business man crying abandoned lost in depression sitting, emotion face

Depression is often overwhelming feelings of helplessness or hopelessness. There is a misconception that people can simply choose to be not depressed. This is not true.

Tip: A psychotherapist can help them find their source of depression. This is often the first step to feeling better.


Young widow laying flowers at the grave

Death is an unavoidable part of life, but it is also never easy to deal with for anyone. The loss of a child, a parent, a friend, a lover or even a pet can affect different people differently. Grieving is a natural process but when that grieving leads to a loss of touch with reality, it can create bigger problems.

Tip: A psychotherapist can help them find appropriate and healthy ways to cope with the death of a loved one.



Phobias can range from being afraid of heights, spiders, fire, to public speaking and even death itself. Such unusual, irrational and unfounded fears can create substantial health problems in people’s lives.

Tip: A psychotherapist can help people overcome their fears so that they can live without phobias.


Parent and kid hands connecting couple jigsaw puzzle piece with drawn red heart

Relationships, whether family, personal, or work-related, have many ups and downs. While relationships can be the source of many joys in life, they can also be a source of stress and problems.

Tip: A psychotherapist can either individually or in a family setting, help iron out wrinkles that can form in even the strongest relationships.


addcitins to alcohol, drinking

Addictions like smoking, drinking, drug use, eating disorders, anger management, insomnia, and hypersomnia are often symptoms of larger underlying problems.

Tip: A psychotherapist can help people get to the root of those problems, and they can also help you tackle these problems immediately.

I was a psychotherapist believe in utilizing Behaviour Therapy, Cognitive Therapy and Humanistic Therapy to help people overcome their problems. Behavior Therapy focuses on our learning’s role in developing both normal and abnormal behaviours. Cognitive Therapy emphasizes what people think rather than what they do. And Humanistic Therapy emphasizes people’s capacity to make rational choices and develop to their maximum potential.

counseling by a psychologist

Identifying and managing diagnosable mental illness is priority numero uno in the psychiatric community. But providing affordable and personalized psychological help for those with a clear condition that can be managed is just as important. Aside from suffering needlessly, those in distress actually make their problems worse by avoiding professional help.

Get in touch today for a professional diagnosis and treatment plan. We at SoftMind respect your privacy and can offer you personalized treatment and care.


Stress is not as harmful as we think. There are some benefits to stress. We can classify stress into two types of’ positive stress and negative stress. If you see the stress as a benefit like boosting your brain, motivating you to success and that stressful challenge can give learning and achievement opportunity.

Many studies show that the benefits of a positive mindset. A new diary study in the European journal of work and organizational has found the implications of the stress mindset of the workplace the first investigation was led by Anne Casper.

Findings of Anne Casper

Science student using pipette in the lab to fill test tubes at the university

The researchers led by Anne Casper at the University of Mannheim found that if the employee has positive mindset the anticipating the workload on a given day that increases their performance of that day and takes more proactive step to meet the challenge they feel more energized at the end of the day these where the main factors found by Anne Casper and researchers.

How Anne Casper and Researches Came To Conclusion

Focused young woman making notes in outdoor cafe. Pretty lady wearing casual clothes and sitting at table with chairs and building in background. Education concept. Front view.

The researchers use 171 employees’ works in various fields mainly in medical, educational, health and social care and it. Their average age was 39 and half of were men. The researchers firstly completed a survey about their stress mindset. Then they give employs online diary the employee has to complete the diary three times a day in the morning, after work and before bed for five working days. In the morning the online diary asks them to answer the questions about the workload that day. After work, it asked how did they any constructive steps they’d taken to meet day’s challenges like planning or scheduling and seeing the challenge as a learning opportunity. In the evening they asked how did they perform and how energetic they felt.

Startup Business People Looking on Strategy Board Information Thoughtful

The employs with a positive stress mindset, there was a relation between expecting larger workload and make more proactive steps to deal with it and this proactive constructive behaviour was related to performing better and they feel more energized after work. But in a negative mindset the relation was reversed the more workload they anticipated they perform less constructive coping behaviour. That affects the performance of the employee and they feel less energized at day’s end the people with negative stress mindset try to cope through avoidance.

The new study shows that our stress mindset influences how we respond to the challenge. If a student with a positive stress mindset is more inclined to seek out feedback after completing the successful task.


Millennial employee taking break from computer, young businesswoman or student stretching at workplace in multiracial coworking, relaxed manager happy to finish work enjoying pause for relaxation

Anne and her colleagues show the benefits of stress and it will raise awareness among the people about the stress mindset. There is some evidence that people can help to develop a positive stress mindset. Researchers say there are some limitations stress was according to work is different there is the limit for stress over stress is harmful.

The research didn’t give any strong reasons for the effects of stress mindset. This research was focused on a single day that is not enough to evaluate. It helps to clear the negative thoughts about stress.

The study shows the about positive mindset and advantages of the stress. Overall it’s important to have good stress in our life.















counselling with doctor

Vijay Kumar was brought by household members when he tried to suicide for counselling he tries out.

He said “I saw the death in front of me, I have no hope. The pain was I can’t do anything for my only daughter” he stumbled.

When I tried to know what’s the matter Vijay Kumar unleash the matter.

On a journey, Vijay Kumar accidentally caught blood from strangers wound. He worried that contact with blood will pour aids. He has no guts for a blood test. When the fear increases he saw a psychiatrist. He says some of the mental problems to the psychiatrist while buying the prescription of medicine Vijay Kumar asked as a general suspicion.

Sir If someone else blood caught in your hand can spread aids?

If you have wound and he has aids, that blood falls in it maybe you have a chance to caught aids” doctor replied.

That’s enough for Vijay Kumar always thinks about the terror of aids. He thinks that he is an aids patient. A kind of obsessive rumination. His voice breaks. He avoids the presence of friends. He then surrounds sounds became a cruel noise. In a depressing morning, he tried to suicide.  His doctor could not understand the inner nature of the question behind the question of Vijay Kumar, He did not have any doubts about his own thoughts. That doctor would have to treat his vain interests in a strategic way.

Of course, the counselling is just advice and without thoughtless words can give serious problems.

Sad man holding head with hand

So what really happened with Vijay Kumar? Vijay Kumar has been experienced this emotional crisis for over time. It can be understood as a social-cultural state. His behaviour influences heterosexual chemistry. Financial crisis can also be a reason. Various interpretations can be made from the fields of chemistry, psychology, economics, genetics, and social science.

At this level, it’s not easy to evacuate every think carefully and counselling. However professionally counselling should have a better understanding of human nature.

Counselling Harassment

psychiatrist doctor touching stress patient man to cheer up him from sadness on hospital bed. Mental or depressive disorder sickness. Healthcare concept.

Counselling is done on the basis of several psychological theories. Religious counsellors are mental counselling and mentoring the psychological aspects of religion. There are physical and mental problems in childhood and the counselling of psychoanalytical arguments against the cause of mental illness.

There are counselling methods on the basis of studies by Maslow’s idea that humans aren’t merely an Animal, he has to culture the potential to reach self-actualization. But psychoanalysis and human rights are against modern concepts towards the world and human behaviour. Since the principles of Humanitarianism were roughly based on the social and cultural theories were acceptable by religions. The much latest theories like Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (EBT) and cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT).

Silhouette of human hand holding bible and cross, the background is the sunrise., Concept for Christian, Christianity, Catholic religion, divine, heavenly, celestial or god.

The Christian religion preachers realized these were against the interests of the religion and presented the rational emotive spiritual therapy. The principles of the church were that we should never doubt the religious teachings and that is the cause of problems in life, we should control the mind through our soul, that there are limitations to believing in our own abilities, also that God is above all, along with logical reasoning we should also treatment of our ails is also necessary, and that Jesus Christ is the greatest psychiatrist.


The teaching Of Islam psychology is that if you want to have a spiritual impact in accordance with the god, one must find shelter in Allah.  Spiritual (swanthvana) advice of clinical theology that is sheltering in the Lord Almighty came under the name of the Christian religion. Based on various Indian philosophies in the name of Indian psychology karma theory and Bhagwat Gita annotations and activities were propagated.

In short, religious priests, teachers, and educated martyrs are exploiting religious beliefs with their beliefs. Mind power training, meditation, retro and art of living training are all over the course of persecution. It’s wrong through counselling all human (manovyathikal) will solve and difficulties get worse. Those who do not know enough about human nature can simplify the meaning of the words of the person and complicate simple issues. When the common sense of the people tend to oppose the existing thinking they oppress or say it psychic nature of mind.

Modern Counselling Ways

Social Media Users & Happy Words - Do they really mean the same?

Some scientists make use of the efficiency of science and put forward a sort of Metascience method. For their own privacy, they conclude in integral observations. There are also some dangerous observations due to their own personality standings. The fact that Regeneration treatment, dynamic medication and various other healing therapy and tests like roach are traditional methods is a known fact Psychological methods should be renewed in a natural habitat. Observations of brain scans and studies in hormones cannot be dismissed with such ease. Not only that there have also been apparent changes in the traditional thoughts on basic human social interaction methods.

On the basis of the growth of genetics, molecular biology and neuropsychology the viewpoints on the mind and (bhodamandalam) are accepted after various academic discussions. There were methods using evolutionary psychology to understand human behaviour.

The method of scientific counselling eliminates the state of mental and physical vulnerability and slavery. This isn’t forced upon the now prevailing theories. The counsellor interacts in the modern viewpoint of (bhodamandalam) and mental practices.


Female tourists spread their arms and held their wings, smiling happily.

A sense of dread fills the mind of most people today. Their minds are filled with doubts and thoughts about their actions from the past. It is easy to shut the voices of criticism coming from outside. But what if the hurtful words are coming from your own mind?

I have only two words to say to you – Accept Yourself.

Read more to find out how you can overcome the many self-made barriers and accept yourself and also learn new habits to heal yourself emotionally.

Group of friends help comfort friend who are feeling sad, stressed and pressured.

Whenever we see someone get hurt or crying, we almost immediately feel compassion towards them. Even if we don’t know them, we are able to empathize with them. Now, look back at the last time you were hurt or the time you were crying. Did you show the same level of compassion and empathy to yourself?

And what did you do instead?

portrait of handsome young man pointing to the front

You blamed yourself. You found occasions in your life where you thought you had gone wrong. Your mind filled up with unwanted thoughts. Awful, embarrassing and traumatic memories from the past started occupying your mind. You started experiencing body aches and pains and you were highly disturbed by it.

Strange isn’t it? That we are often nicer to complete strangers than towards our own self?

Around 5,000 people were surveyed by the charity – Action for Happiness and the University of Hertfordshire in the UK in 2013. It listed the main habits practiced by people that led to a drastic improvement in their happiness level. In that study, self-acceptance was shown to make people most happy. In fact, self-acceptance won more points than other habits like being positive, learning new skills, and spending time with friends and family collaborating on a positive project.

young man pointing his mouth

Since you are here, one would assume that you are someone struggling with self-acceptance. So what are the barriers in front of you? Most people surveyed said that to practice self-acceptance, one would have to surrender control. I.e. not do any action and let nature/destiny take its course. This is often the biggest barrier that one faces. Because everyone likes to be in control and charge of their lives and fate. And no one likes to feel like they don’t have any control over their lives.

People also feel that self-acceptance means giving up when in real life, it only means acknowledging our situation and not trying to change it all by ourselves.

Another barrier is the inner critic that resides within us. We don’t have to completely mute him or her. But we certainly have to coax them to offer criticism more gently.

self acceptance

The good news is that it is never too late to begin the journey of self-acceptance and forgiveness. Here are a few simple steps by which you can achieve this.

Follow these simple steps –

  1. By developing feelings of compassion towards yourself.
  2. Practicing meditation and mindfulness to identify harmful ways of thinking and isolating it.
  3. Accepting the many physical ailments in your body. Be it insomnia, pains, aches, various diseases, and illnesses.
  4. Accepting the many mental traumas you have suffered. Accepting the abuse, unwanted thoughts and negative emotions.
  5. And finally, accepting your own body and personality. Celebrate and cherish who you are and what makes you unique in this world and never compare yourself with others.

Remember, acceptance isn’t a solution that magically solves the problems that you are currently facing. Acceptance is merely the starting point on the path to a solution. Self Acceptance is simply telling yourself – “Yes, this is how my life is at the moment. But this is okay. I will overcome this one day.”

Pro Tip: You can try writing positive and compassionate messages and letters to yourself.




Do you know? Exercise is the number one activity that has the potential to make you feel better, increase your energy levels and also reduce your stress!

And no, you don’t have to go to a gym for that. It doesn’t have to be this big, planned activity. A simple walk around your neighbourhood will help you stretch your muscles and get the blood circulating through all the muscles.

Exercise can be as simple as avoiding a vehicle when you can get somewhere on foot or avoiding the elevator when you can take the stairs instead. It can be anything you want. Just get up and start moving already!


Beautiful woman listening music in morning sitting on bed at hom

Another simple and inexpensive way to feel better and improve your mood is by listening to music.

Music can influence your mood in many ways. It can calm your mind down and create positive feelings. It can also make your good moods seem even better.

Music in any language or genre has the power to stimulate a variety of positive emotions in us.


day dreaming

Go on and dream, specifically so, daydream. When we are daydreaming, our mind wanders in all directions in a haphazard manner. But if you can control your mind and channel the path your dreams take, then you will be able to turn to daydream into a beneficial activity.

It might be difficult to train your mind not to think about embarrassing things or your perceived failures while you are daydreaming. But once you manage to control your mind, then you will be able to visit these happy moments on a whim and it will provide you with a lot of pleasure.

Say Thank You

thank you

No human being in this world is a self-made person. We all have numerous people in our lives who have through various small and big gestures helped us become and get where we are today. Gratitude is a powerful emotion that helps us enjoy what we have.

Being grateful has a show to increase our happiness level and life satisfaction. And it is easy to practise. Start by saying thank you more often in our every day social transactions. And on a personal level, you can start by letting someone you know who has helped you, how much their gesture means to you. You can do this in person or through other forms of communication.

Appreciate what you have

Child lying on green grass. Kid having fun outdoors in spring park.

It is easy to waste time feeling sad about all the little things you didn’t achieve, people who didn’t love you and the opportunities that you lost. But did you know? You could always do the opposite and create meaning in life! Think about all the people who love you and the job that you are doing right now or anything else in your life that you take for granted. What if you hadn’t gotten these as well? So appreciate every little achievement and asset that you have. Use it to create personal meaning and improve satisfaction in your life.

Make positive plans

think big

Do you remember when you were young and you waited anxiously for your summer vacation to start or the times when you waited for your parents to take you to the cinemas or the beach? Do you remember that anticipation? There was so much pleasure in that wait.

You can recreate this in your adult life as well. Make plans for positive things you want to see/do/be/achieve/go to, and revel in the anticipation as you wait till the goal is met. It doesn’t matter how small the dream is, always look forward to positive things in life.

Loosen your purse strings

A doller bills in a wallet

Money can never make you happy. We have been hearing this same moral phrase since long. But did you know? Money can make you happy! How? By spending it on someone else!

When we spend money on others, two things happen. Firstly, we feel happy about ourselves because we feel responsible and giving. Secondly, it leads to forming stronger social bonds between the gifter and the receiver. And people with stronger social ties are generally happier.

Form friendships

Group of kids friends arm around sitting together

There’s an old saying that goes like this – friends are the family that you choose. It couldn’t be truer. A good friend can have and will make the best impression and improvement in your life. They will not only egg you on to help you achieve your life goals but they will also offer sound advice and criticism when you go wrong. The best kinds of friends are those who will provide a reality check and keep your feet on the ground. And people with friends are likely to socialise more and form better social relationships.

Maintain a journal

maintaining a journal

A journal needn’t be a diary wherein at the end of the day you write down everything that happened to you that day. No, instead you can write about at least three good things that happened to you that day. And if you feel that is too many, then write two good things that happened to you. Even that sounds too much? Then write that one good thing that happened to you. Now don’t tell me this is also difficult. Everyone has at least one good thing happening in their lives at any given point. Remember what we discussed earlier? Appreciate the small, little details in your life and you will find enough things to mention at the end of the day.

So go on and write about three little things that gave you happiness that day. Write also about how they made you feel better and how these came to be. Because once you know how then you can recreate this on days when you are feeling a bit blue.

Concentrate on your strengths

Young attractive female rock climber climbing challenging route on steep rock wall

What this means is quite simple. Everyone has a skill or a talent that they are good at. And it needn’t be a world-famous skill either. It could be as simple as knowing how to make a simple dish or painting or practising karate or doing accounts, etc. As I said, it could be anything!

People cheer up when they do something that they excel at. Take some time out every day to do that activity that you are good at. It is guaranteed to make you feel happier.


Smartphone Addiction - A Real Thing?

Smartphones are an indispensable thing in our daily life. But misuse of Smartphone can lead us to an addiction basically we can call this as Smartphone addiction. Medical health experts say smartphone addiction is real and need to take into consideration, with 2.71 billion users all around the globe, as it impacts negatively.  Smartphone addiction leads us to depression, loneliness, stress, disrupted sleep, lower work productivity, and even worse – the decline in wellbeing.

A group of psychiatry and psychology researchers from Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil found that smartphone addiction can lead to poorer decision-making.  Another research team Caglar Yildirim from the State University of New York at Oswego and Ana-Paula Correia from the Ohio State University got a better understanding of Nomophobia – no mobile phone phobia.

Findings of Caglar Yildirim and Ana Paula Correia

Close up of an upset girl with tousled hair having a bad day on the phone

They developed 20 item nomophobia questionnaire for some undergrad students by a discussion with them Yildirim and Correia revealed some key themes

  • The fear to not able to communicate
  • Losing connectedness
  • Not being able to access an information
  • Giving up convenience

Researchers realized that nomophobia is a real thing – the fear of no mobile phone contact.

Research Carried out by Juliya Machado Khoury

smartphone addction

In frontiers in psychiatry shows people with notional smartphone addiction are high about 25% of the population in the US; 10% of adolescents in the UK; and 43% in Brazil.  Studies in several countries reported a high prevalence of smartphone addiction, especially on the university students the prevalence of Smartphone addiction on among on the young students is estimated 6% in Italy; 38% in Spain; 18.8%in Japan; 28.7% in the Netherlands; 44% in India; 67% in UAE.

Julia Machado Khoury at The Federal University of Gerais and her colleagues found that Smartphone addiction has caused negative consequences and functional impairments in students. Smartphone addiction affects their academic performance and sleeps quality.

smarphone user bad sleep

The research was conducted on that 47 graduate student’s age 18 to 25 high enough to qualify as have an addiction. Later researchers compared these students performance in 43 matched controls on widely used decision-making tasks. They compared the performance in the Iowa gambling task (IGT), a game of dice task (GDT) and skin conductance response (SCR).  Iowa gambling task is a psychological task to simulate real-life decision making.

Researchers make four decks contain some cards they have to make money much as possible by selecting the face-down card. Each card indicates whether they’ve earned or lost money. In the game of dice task, the participants have to make money through a series of a dice throw in which the rules and the probabilities of winning the different amount were stable and so predictable throughout.

Findings by Juliya Machado Khoury

game of dice

The participants who score more in a game of dice of task they were worse in the Iowa gambling task and greater severity of their purported addiction as indicated by smartphone addiction inventory result, the worse their performance the researchers says “the decision –making under ambiguity reflects more strongly the reality of daily decisions which are made without prior certainty of the probability of each outcome”

When researchers monitored the participant’s skin conductance data throughout they look for the change in fact. When they look at the responsiveness in receiving the rewards or punishment the Smartphone addiction shows lower skin conductance responsiveness before disadvantageous choices, and higher responsiveness after reward winning and lower responsiveness after punishments. The shows that Smartphone addiction has difficulty in recognizing disadvantageous alternatives, high sensitivity to rewards and low sensitivity to punishments.

Julia argues that the participants who score more in Smartphone addiction guided more by the search for reward than avoidance of the punishment. They added that this would help to maintain or maybe even wore their addiction, and helps in academic performance and worse the social relationships.

Julia and her colleagues say people who have a tendency to gain rewards over avoiding punishments may be more likely to develop smartphone addiction, which would make the tendency to addiction worse. We can notice that the new research gives no evidence for the worsening effect.


Focused Man Using Smartphone on Sofa at Night

Smartphone has become an inevitable part of everybody’s life.  The leading AdTech company -Gizmeon Inc in Los Angeles, California, which was specialized in mobile application development in 2016 says:  in 2016 the worldwide app revenue was only 61.9 billions US dollars, however, it’s expected to be 139 billion US dollar industry.  Another industry leader from the digital marketing world – MyHobbes says that it’s expected to mobile phone internet user penetration worldwide to be 63.4% in 2019.

Julia and her colleague’s finding say that smartphone addiction is genuine addiction. But their findings have some clinical implications long term use of a smartphone can develop emotional regulations, awareness of body signs postponement of rewards. But there effective ways to overcome this strategy including physical exercise focused attention on training, biofeedback and cognitive behavioral therapy these may help to overcome Smartphone addiction. The relationship with Smartphone is an unhealthy relationship prevent it before getting worse.


social media user - happy or not - Diverse people with social media icons

Researchers these days are getting opportunities to study and investigate people’s emotional state with 2.77 million social media users worldwide in 2019.  In 2011 Scoot A. Golder and his team from Department of Sociology, Cornell University published a research paper on ‘diurnal and seasonal mood vary with work, sleep, and daylength across diverse cultures ’ which mentions that positive emotional words are often found more in morning tweets.  This research work from Scoot helped us to analysis that word choice reflects our psychological states.

However Jessie Sun, a graduate student from the University of California, Davis states contrary to what Scoot published in her research paper ‘The language of well-being: tracking fluctuations in emotion experience through everyday speech’.  Jessie and her team found that emotion-related words do not, in fact, provide a good indication of a person’s mood, there might be another set of words that actually do.

In this blog post, we will explain to you what Jessie’s finding was contrary to Scoot’s findings and happy words used by social media users really mean the same.

How Jessie Sun & the Research Team Came to the Conclusion

Research Team Came to the Conclusion

For her research, Jessie and her team gave a recording device to 185 American university students for a week to record their communication activity. They measured positive and negative emotions of students and ended up with 150,000 recordings which research assistants transcribed for over a course of two years.  They estimated each recording with respect to positive and negative emotion words it contained by running the text through Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count analysis programme.

This helped Jessie and her team to come up with 1,579 language-based emotion measurements that helped her to compare directly to participants’ self-reported mood.

Findings by Jessie Sun #1:  Contrary to the Past Studies Assumptions


Jessie and her team came to realize that, contrary to the assumptions of former studies, the number of emotional words (positive and negative) has no correlation with participants’ actual mood.  She explained that her findings suggest that researchers assume the fluctuations in the ‘use of emotional words’ can be used as a proxy for subjective motion experience, at least for spoken language.

Findings by Jessie Sun #2:  Unrelated words to Emotion can predict the Mood

Unrelated words to Emotion can predict the Mood

Through the analysis, Jessie found that participants’ mood can be predicted with another set of words that are not related to emotion.  Socializing words such as “you” or “we” put forward a positive emotion, and math words such as “minus” and “numbers” weren’t as much.  However, she came to realize that these associations were actually week and cannot definitely be used to measure emotion.

Finds by Jessie Sun #3:  Usage of Positive words in Negative Context

 Usage of Positive words in Negative Context

Jessie found a more possible explanation for the null results in the study. They found that participant using alternatively positive dictionary words into a negative context: for example, the word pretty appear positive in the dictionary but it could be used in negative context (e.g. “it was pretty terrible”).


emotional words in social media

Jessie Sun & her team put forward a wonderful inference, even though with though taking the accounts of limitations.  The study establishes the significance of checking the validity of the tool in psychology research.   They nearly prove that early psychological fact was contrary to their research analysis. The users who use more positive or negative emotional words in social media, they are not actually experiencing those emotions.


depression - Sad man holding head with hand

Depression is THE big D word that people nowadays use all the time. But did you know? Being depressed is much more than being sad all the time or thinking that your life is worthless. Depression may have gotten easier to state to medical professionals, but it is still harder to deal with for the patient and difficult to treat for the doctor. This is because depressed people feel helpless, hopeless and feel that their lives are out of control most of the time.

We’ll see what it means to have depression and how we can manage it in the following sections.


Depression - Young business man crying abandoned lost in depression sitting, emotion face

According to numerous studies done, people who are depressed tend to have a more realistic and nuanced assessment of their abilities and skills and of how well they have performed on a task. People who are not depressed often see the world through optimistic eyes and think they have more abilities than they actually possess. Depressed people are more critical of their work and self-appraises more accurately.


aimless - Center of a bullseye with colorful darts nailed, target concept.

People who suffer from depression tend not to have any specific goals in life. They see everything in life through the same lens and treat everything with apathy or in an abstract nature.

When you interact with people who are depressed, you will notice in the way they describe their future goals. It will never be anything specific. It will always be something generic like – I want to be happy, I want peace in my life, etc. They never say and they never have any concrete plans to achieve their goals.

Helpful Tip – Remember – specific goals are more likely to be achieved than generalized goals. Example : I’ll greet my parents every morning Vs I want to improve my relationship with my parents.


effect on memory - Happy pensive senior lady embracing her daughter at home. Positive family sitting on sofa and brining up past. Family together concept

Not many people know this but depression can actually have an adverse effect on your memory. This is especially so in the case of remembering specific facts like names and places.

It has been said that this could be because depressed people tend to lose the ability to differentiate between similar experiences. Depression also affects your spacial awareness and your ability to give meaning to various life events.

What this means is that depressed people will find it difficult to remember the happy moments and events from their lives.


One way to overcome this is by creating a memory bank wherein you purposely store all your good and happy memories and access it every time life seems too bleak and sad for you.


Thoughts on a roll - 3D render of a male figure stood in front of a maze

One of the most important symptoms seen in depressed minds is that of a single or at times multiple sad and fearful thoughts circulating on a loop. This is known as thought rumination. This is when certain depressing thoughts keep going over and over in your mind.

The solution to this isn’t to tell the person to stop doing it. This method is as effective as telling a person to stop thinking about oranges. He won’t be able to do it. Never mind the fact that he wasn’t even thinking about an orange in the first place!

Instead, we should get the person to engage in – Mindfulness. It is nothing but learning to live in the present. When you focus on the now, this moment that you are alive, then you will be able to stop thinking about your past regrets and future worries.


catch them young - asian kids doing yoga pose in the park outdoor

Since we have started accepting that mindfulness is useful in treating depressive episodes, here’s a revolutionary thought – why not teach it to children! Everyone knows that children often have a hard time focussing on any one thing at a time and are often skipping along from one activity to the other.

If we were to teach mindfulness to children, then it will teach them to focus on one activity at a time from a young age and this will certainly aid in reducing chances of future episodes of depression.

1… 2… 3… EXERCISE!

exercise - Close up shoes Female runner tying her shoes for a jogging exercise

Endorphins and oxytocin are hormones in our body that help in making us feel good about ourselves. These hormone levels increase and get released into our body when we exercise. Any form of exercise not only makes you feel good in the short run but they are also great at stopping future episodes of depression.


Change the way you think - Portrait of young latin woman sitting on the floor looking up, thinking of something fun and having an idea, concept of imagination, happy and excited. Holding a laptop.

People often mistakenly think that depression is caused by some major traumatic event. While such events can contribute to it, this isn’t always the case.

Most often, depression is nothing but our reaction to every day events and people that causes high level of stress in us.

So even if we have no control over the events and people affecting us, we can at least control our thinking and our way of reacting to these developments.

Helpful Tip – It is entirely possible to help a person change the way they think, and teach them positive coping strategies that can mitigate and reduce their stress levels.

consult a psychologist

* If you or any one you know may be suffering from depression, then don’t hesitate to contact a mental health professional today.


We’ve experienced practising clinical hypnotherapist, consultant psychologist and Forensic Hypnologist in our team to work with people with a full range of mental health problems and emotional distress.

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